COVID-19 vaccines for kids: What you need to know

Coronavirus sickness 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are now accessible to small children ages 5 and up in the U.S. This is what mom and dad and young ones have to have to know about the safety and efficiency of the vaccine, the possible aspect outcomes, and the advantages of receiving vaccinated.

If small children really don’t often practical experience serious disease with COVID-19, why do they have to have a COVID-19 vaccine?

A COVID-19 vaccine can reduce your kid from receiving and spreading the virus that causes COVID-19.

If your kid will get COVID-19, a COVID-19 vaccine could reduce him or her from starting to be seriously ill or dealing with limited-time period or extensive-time period troubles. Young children with other overall health ailments, these kinds of as being overweight, diabetes and bronchial asthma, could possibly be at larger chance of critical disease with COVID-19.

Getting a COVID-19 vaccine can also enable maintain your kid in university and much more safely have playdates and take part in sporting activities and other group things to do.

What COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized for young ones in the U.S.?

In the U.S., COVID-19 vaccines are accessible to small children by age group:

  • Ages 5 as a result of eleven. The U.S. Foodstuff and Drug Administration (Food and drug administration) has provided crisis use authorization to a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for this age group. This vaccine consists of two injections, provided three weeks apart. It is made up of a decreased dose than the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine used for men and women age twelve and more mature. Study shows that this vaccine is about ninety one% effective in blocking COVID-19 in small children ages 5 as a result of eleven.
  • Ages twelve as a result of fifteen. The Food and drug administration has provided crisis use authorization to a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for this age group. This vaccine consists of two injections, provided three weeks apart. It is made up of the same dose as the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for men and women ages sixteen and more mature. The 2nd dose can be provided up to six weeks right after the 1st dose, if wanted. Study has revealed that this vaccine is 100% effective in blocking COVID-19 in small children ages twelve as a result of fifteen.
  • Ages sixteen and more mature. The Food and drug administration has authorized a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, now called Comirnaty, for this age group. This vaccine consists of two injections, provided three weeks apart. The 2nd dose can be provided up to six weeks right after the 1st dose, if wanted. This vaccine is ninety one% effective in blocking serious disease with COVID-19 in men and women age sixteen and more mature. Early exploration also indicates that the vaccine is ninety six% effective at blocking serious sickness with COVID-19 brought about by the delta variant, the most typical COVID-19 variant in the U.S right now.

How did the Food and drug administration determine the safety and efficiency of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines for use in young ones?

For young ones ages 5 as a result of eleven, the Food and drug administration reviewed a vaccine study of much more than four,600 small children in this age variety. Of this group, about 3,100 were provided the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The other small children were provided an inactive (placebo) shot. Young children who were provided the vaccine were monitored for aspect outcomes for at minimum two months right after the 2nd dose. Facet outcomes were frequently gentle to reasonable.

The Food and drug administration also took an early seem at situations of COVID-19 that occurred a person week right after small children were provided a 2nd dose of the vaccine. None of the small children in this assessment had been formerly identified with COVID-19. Between 1,305 small children provided the vaccine, there were 3 situations of COVID-19. Between 663 small children provided the placebo, there were sixteen situations of COVID-19. The results recommend that the vaccine is about ninety one% effective in blocking COVID-19 in this age group.

For young ones ages twelve as a result of fifteen, the Food and drug administration reviewed a vaccine study of much more than two,two hundred U.S. small children in this age variety. Of this group, about 50 % were provided the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The other small children were provided a placebo shot.

A week right after the 2nd dose was provided, there were no situations of COVID-19 in the 1,005 small children provided the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Between 978 small children provided the placebo, there were sixteen situations of COVID-19. None of the small children had formerly been identified with COVID-19. The results recommend that the vaccine is 100% effective at blocking COVID-19 in this age group.

What are the aspect outcomes of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines for young ones?

Young children provided the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines had aspect outcomes comparable to individuals professional by men and women age sixteen and more mature. The most typically claimed aspect outcomes consist of:

  • Ache where the shot was provided
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Chills
  • Muscle suffering
  • Fever
  • Joint suffering
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Nausea
  • Lowered hunger

Similar to grown ups, small children have aspect outcomes within just two days right after vaccination that usually last 1 to 3 days. A lot more small children claimed these aspect outcomes, except for injection web page suffering, right after the 2nd dose of the vaccine. Having said that, some men and women have no aspect outcomes.

Immediately after your kid is provided a COVID-19 vaccine, he or she will be monitored for fifteen to thirty minutes to see if he or she has an allergic response that needs cure.

It isn’t really encouraged that you give your kid an around-the-counter suffering reliever prior to vaccination to reduce aspect outcomes. It is really Ok to give this kind of medication right after your kid will get a COVID-19 vaccine.

Can COVID-19 vaccines influence the heart?

In the U.S., there has been an increase in claimed situations of myocarditis and pericarditis right after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, specially in males ages twelve as a result of 17. Myocarditis is the swelling of the heart muscle mass, although pericarditis is the swelling of the lining outside the house the heart. These stories are unusual. One study indicates that the chance of myocarditis in the week right after remaining thoroughly vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is about fifty four situations for each million doses provided to males ages twelve to 17.

Of the situations claimed, the issue occurred much more generally right after the 2nd dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and usually within just quite a few days right after COVID-19 vaccination. Most of the men and women who gained treatment quickly felt much better right after acquiring drugs and resting. Indicators to look at for consist of:

  • Upper body suffering
  • Shortness of breath
  • Thoughts of possessing a quick-beating, fluttering or pounding heart

If you or your kid has any of these signs or symptoms within just a week of receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, seek out medical treatment.

Is there any exploration on the extensive-time period outcomes of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines?

Mainly because COVID-19 vaccine scientific trials only started out in the summer season of 2020, it can be not still clear if the vaccines will have extensive-time period outcomes. Having said that, vaccines hardly ever induce extensive-time period outcomes.

A portion of the small children in every age group were monitored for safety for at minimum two months right after remaining provided the 2nd dose of the COVID-19 vaccine.

As element of its 1st ask for for crisis use authorization of its COVID-19 vaccine in 2020, Pfizer Inc. established a safety checking program. The program now contains the checking of small children and adolescents provided the COVID-19 vaccine.

In addition, in the U.S. all vaccination suppliers are essential to report critical adverse gatherings, these kinds of as allergic reactions, to a nationwide plan called the Vaccine Adverse Occasion Reporting System.

How do the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines perform?

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines use messenger RNA (mRNA). Scientists have been learning mRNA vaccines for a long time.

Coronaviruses have a spikelike construction on their floor called an S protein. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines give directions to immune cells for how to make a harmless piece of an S protein. Immediately after vaccination, cells start off generating the protein parts and displaying them on mobile surfaces. The immune system recognizes the protein and begins constructing an immune response and generating antibodies. Immediately after providing directions, the mRNA is quickly damaged down. It never enters the nucleus of the mobile, where DNA is saved.

Is there any variation in the substances or dosing of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines for younger small children, more mature small children or grown ups?

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for small children ages 5 as a result of eleven is made up of a decreased dose (ten micrograms) than the vaccine used for more mature small children and grown ups (thirty micrograms). Smaller needles are remaining used to supply the vaccine to small children ages 5 as a result of eleven.

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for small children ages 5 as a result of eleven also is made up of a unique buffer than the vaccine used for more mature small children and grown ups. This unique buffer, which is used in other
Food and drug administration-authorized vaccines, will enable maintain the vaccine stable in refrigerated temperatures for for a longer period.

The substances and dosing of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine are the same for small children ages twelve as a result of fifteen and men and women age sixteen and more mature.

Are there any small children who should not get the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine?

This vaccine is not still accessible to small children younger than age 5. Scientific trials involving younger small children are in progress.

The vaccine also should not be provided to a kid with a regarded heritage of a serious allergic response to any of its substances. If this is the case, your kid could possibly be able to get a different COVID-19 vaccine in the potential.

Can a COVID-19 vaccine give a kid COVID-19?

No. The COVID-19 vaccines at present remaining formulated in the U.S. really don’t use the are living virus that causes COVID-19.

Can a COVID-19 vaccine influence fertility or menstruation?

There is no proof that any COVID-19 vaccines induce fertility complications.

A compact quantity of women have claimed dealing with temporary menstrual variations right after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. A compact study has also revealed that some women professional temporary menstrual variations right after receiving COVID-19. It is not clear if receiving COVID-19 or a COVID-19 vaccine causes these variations. Even more exploration is wanted.

Hold in head that quite a few issues can influence menstrual cycles, which include infections, tension, rest complications and variations in diet program or exercising.

Can small children who get COVID-19 practical experience extensive-time period outcomes?

Any one who has had COVID-19 can develop a put up-COVID-19 situation. Study indicates that small children with both of those gentle and serious COVID-19 have professional extensive-time period signs or symptoms. The most typical signs or symptoms in small children consist of:

  • Tiredness or fatigue
  • Headache
  • Problems sleeping
  • Problems concentrating
  • Muscle and joint suffering
  • Cough

These signs or symptoms could influence your child’s skill to attend university or do his or her common things to do. If your kid is dealing with extensive-time period signs or symptoms, look at speaking to your child’s academics about his or her needs.

How can small children get a COVID-19 vaccine?

Seek advice from your community overall health office, pharmacy or your child’s health practitioner for details on where your kid can get a COVID-19 vaccine. When generating an appointment for your kid to get a COVID-19 vaccine, look at inquiring these issues:

  • Does a father or mother or guardian have to have to be present at the appointment?
  • What details will have to have to be presented during the appointment?
  • Is there a limit on how quite a few relatives associates, these kinds of as siblings, can attend the appointment?

How soon can a kid get a COVID-19 vaccine prior to or right after receiving a different vaccine?

A COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines can be provided on the same day.

Previously, owing to the newness of COVID-19 vaccines, the CDC had encouraged towards receiving any other vaccines two weeks prior to and right after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. The CDC improved its suggestion centered on safety details collected in the latest months.

Recall, COVID-19 vaccination will secure most men and women from receiving ill with COVID-19. If you have issues or worries about your kid receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, talk to your child’s health practitioner. He or she could possibly be able to enable you weigh the challenges and advantages.

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Wednesday November 10, 2021